I have been working as a Conservation Assistant at the WSHC for nearly a year, and a large part of my role involves administration and financial processing. However, one of the more interesting and slightly unusual aspects of the job is the hands-on work I get to do as part of the Conservation and Museums Advisory Service here at the centre, and I have recently undertaken training to use the x-ray machine which we have in the lab. This is a complex process which requires stringent processes, records and maintenance checks to ensure the machine is used safely and functioning correctly. Regular use of the equipment is key to building experience and a ‘feel’ for the items being investigated and how to get the strongest images.
How it works
Inside the x-ray machine is an x-ray tube. A heated filament called a cathode sits inside the tube and accelerates high energy electrons at a metal target anode, usually made of tungsten, as the electrons strike the anode they interact with the atoms. In this process, which is called Bremsstrahlung (braking radiation), the electrons lose much of their energy and a photon x-ray is produced. X-rays are electromagnetic radiation of a short wavelength and high frequency invisible to the human eye, but possible to record on photosensitive film, known as x-radiographs.
The object to be x-rayed is placed on top of a cassette which holds the photosensitive film. On exposure the x-rays will penetrate through the object leaving the image captured on the film. The x-rays are partially absorbed, “attenuated”, by the denser materials such as bone or metal and pass more easily through soft material such as soil or skin. Therefore, the strength of the x-ray (KV) and the length of time the object is exposed for is adjusted for the type of material, size and condition of the item.
The photographic films then require a wet, chemical process similar to that used for black and white photographic film with a developer solution to reveal the image, followed by a fixer to secure the image and a wash to remove all chemical residues. This process takes around an hour and half and must be carried out in the dark room, with only red light, which can be a little disorientating at first!
Digital or computed x-radiography is well established and allows greater speed in reviewing and manipulating images. CMAS are actively working to move to digital, so watch this space!
How X-radiographs are used in conservation
X-radiography produces images on a 1:1 scale which allow the conservators to investigate the structure, manufacture or identity of an object. Small dark bubbles can indicate casting processes, the distinctive herringbone structure of pattern welding or wave formations of damascening are often clearly visible in x-rays, even when the surface of a blade is severely deformed.
Moreover, x-rays pass more easily through deteriorated materials and voids, these areas will appear darker grey or black compared to the brighter white of more stable areas. This can show up pitting, cracks and breaks assisting in the accurate assessment of the condition of items and their longer-term conservation requirements.
X-radiography is a non-destructive way of retrieving and revealing information and so it is commonly used in the primary stages of investigation.
History is fun, but it’s even more fun with archives which provide us with that tangible connection to fascinating stories of amazing people and places who have shaped our history.
And this year we have so many reasons, if reasons were needed, to go searching through the Wiltshire & Swindon Archive to see just how connected the county is to some of the major national commemorations that are taking place in 2020.
Already garnering national attention are the 800th birthday celebrations for Salisbury cathedral and the city of Salisbury. And Salisbury can also lay claim to ties with another 800th anniversary – that of the unveiling of the shrine to St Thomas Becket at Canterbury cathedral. This year is also the 850th anniversary of Becket’s murder.
In a busy year Wiltshire will also be marking the bicentenary of Florence Nightingale’s birth. Most people will know of her as ‘the lady with the lamp’ – a phrase and image made famous in her lifetime following her pioneering work during the Crimean War – but how many know of her connections to Wilton House and the Pembroke family?
Florence was born in Florence, Italy, on 12th May 1820 and named after the city of her birth. (Her older sister Frances Parthenope was named after her birthplace of Parthenope in Naples.) The family moved back to England in 1821 and Florence grew up at Embley Park in Hampshire, just 15 miles from Salisbury. She wanted to be a nurse from an early age and had hoped to take up the career at Salisbury Infirmary – then in Fisherton Street – but her family opposed the idea, believing nursing to be an inappropriate activity for a young woman of her social standing.
She spent much of her twenties travelling and it was in Rome, in November 1847, that she met Sidney Herbert, the younger son of the Earl of Pembroke, and so began a lifelong friendship that was to prove so important to her work.
In 1853 Florence began her nursing career as the superintendent of a women’s hospital in London but it was the outbreak of war in the Crimea in 1854, and reports of horrendous conditions endured by sick and injured soldiers, that propelled Florence into spotlight.
With the support of Sidney Herbert, the minister for war, Florence Nightingale led a group of nurses to the Crimea and so began her campaign to improve conditions at Scutari hospital. Her work, alongside the work of a government Sanitary Commission, transformed the survival rates for the soldiers treated at Scutari.
Accounts of her work in her own words and the words of others are held here at the Wiltshire & Swindon History Centre and form part of the Pembroke archive (WSA 2057). There are two series of correspondence and documents – 2057/F4 and 2057/F8 – which include letters sent by Florence to Sidney Herbert and others.
In a letter written from Scutari in January 1856 (WSA 2057/F4/64), Florence attempts to explain to “dear Mr Bracebridge” how she will use the money given to the newly established Nightingale Fund. “The people of England say to me by their subscriptions ‘We trust you, we wish you to do us a service’. No love or confidence can be shown to a human being greater than this – and as such I accept it gratefully…” She goes on to say: “And if I have a plan in me, which is not battered out by the constant ‘wear and tear’ of mind and body I am now undergoing, it would be simply this – to take the poorest and least organised hospital & putting myself in there, see what I could do…”. She concludes that she is “overwhelmed at present not with plans but work.” And adds that she wishes she could say “how much I feel the love & confidence of the people of England, in whose service I have lived, so I shall die.”
Florence’s work, and that of her nurses, had made headline news in Britain and the public began giving money for a gift honouring her efforts, but so much money was given that the Nightingale Fund was created, with her friend and support Sidney Herbert its honorary secretary.
Florence’s uncertainty about the details of what to do with the fund did not last long and in July 1860 the first school of nursing was opened at St Thomas’s Hospital in London. As well as transforming and professionalising the training of nurses, Florence also influenced the design of new hospitals, introducing the eponymous Nightingale Wards.
Following on from her work during the Crimean war, Florence campaigned for improved sanitary conditions at home and went on to work on improving conditions for the British army in India. Florence was an effective social reformer and campaigner, making the most of her friendship with Sidney Herbert and not afraid to use the media of the day. But she was also careful to support her work with evidence, especially statistics, and became the first woman elected to the Royal Statistical Society.
The Florence Nightingale letters in the Pembroke archive, and letters written by others about Florence’s work, are a fascinating insight into one of Britain’s most iconic Victorian figures and it is fitting that we mark the bicentenary of her birth on 12th May this year.
Stratford Tony is a small village 4 ½ miles from Salisbury. The river Ebble flows through it, and the line of the ancient Roman road known as ‘Icknield Street’ passes close on the west side of the village. The most notable occupant of Stratford Tony was the impressionist painter Wilfrid de Glehn, who lived at the Manor House from 1942 until his death in 1951. The population now only amounts to around 50 people.
Last year Wiltshire Buildings Record was asked to investigate the old rectory, now a private house. The house presented a decorous early Georgian front with views across the lawns to the river below. As ever, we looked beyond the polite elevation to the hidden corners and roof spaces to reveal a very different story. Remains of a c1500 timber-frame were found embedded in replacement stone walls and in the roof which suggested that this was a much more humble farmhouse. Grabbed by the intrigue glands, our researcher Louise did what she does best, which is to squirrel out those hidden facts embedded in layers of old parchment. It turns out that it was quite possibly a grange farm for the Abbey of Lyra in Normandy (nothing to do with His Dark Materials or the constellation of stars!) and then the Priory of Sheen in Richmond, London.
Its transformation to posh rectory happened in the later 16th century when Lawrence Hyde acquired the advowson (the right to recommend a clergyman to a ‘living’ in the parish) from the Crown in 1560. Lawrence Hyde was part of the influential Hyde family of Wiltshire, he had benefitted greatly from the acquisition of land and property following the Dissolution of the Monasteries. He held a lease from William Earl of Pembroke, of Wardour Castle and Park around the time he was granted the advowson at Stratford Tony. Members of the Hyde family held it for over 126 years up to 1686, when it then transferred to Edward Fawconer of Sarum.
By 1671 the glebe terrier noted a substantial rectory house comprising …A mansion house, a brew house, a wood house, a barn, a stable, a fodder house besides some skillings (cowsheds), an orchard, 2 gardens…. Lawrence and his son Robert Hyde installed three members of their own family as clerks at Stratford Tony. It is very likely, the patronage of the Hyde family resulted in substantial investment in the parsonage house, including the addition of a smart Georgian wing. This was extended further in 1791 by Reverend Stockwell, the rector at that time, who commemorated it with a datestone.
In 1888 William and Albert Burden, with the help of their father Thomas, founded ‘Burden Brothers’ and began manufacturing church and turret clocks. Their showroom was at 101 Fisherton Street, Salisbury, and they had a factory at 155 Wilton Road, but the factory had to be transferred to Tollgate Road after being destroyed by fire in 1899. During 1902 they sold the clock business to Williamson and Son, who traded as the English Clock Company and began to manufacture motor engines. Percy Dean, a wealthy landowner from Chitterne, supplied the initial capital of £3,800 and founded ‘Dean and Burden Brothers’ – Motor Engineers. ‘Scout’ became their product name in 1905. Percy Dean owned a car from 1903, a Georges Richard which was registered in December 1903; this date is misleading, because The Motor Car Act of 1903 required owners to register all new vehicles as well as existing ones. Percy Dean’s Georges Richard could have been used at any point prior to this date. He became a test driver and director at Motor Engineers, Dean and Burden Brothers. They moved to new premises called the ‘Excelsior Works’ in Friary Lane and began making engines for boats. During 1905 boats fitted with their engines started to make their mark, winning time trials and having success at regattas. They were already fitting their engines to bicycles, AM-65 was registered in December 1903 to a Sidney Eli Silverthorne, a watchmaker who was employed by Scout to wind and maintain clocks in the surrounding villages. The 1906 price for a Scout motor cycle was £45, a mid-range price for the time. The company’s interest in motor cycles and marine engines was not maintained and eventually phased out in favour of motor car manufacture.
The Scout Motor Car
A car was entered for the Isle of Man TT in September 1905, but unfortunately it crashed a week before the trials; the crash was reported in ‘The Autocar’ of September 1905. They managed to assemble a second car which was registered AM-702 on 4th September 1905 and arrived just in time for the trials. It started the Douglas Tourist Trophy Race with forty-one others, unfortunately it ran out of petrol 23 miles before the finish. The company was now employing around 80 men who worked 50 hours per week and paid between 2½d and 7½d per hour: about £0.80 and £2.45 today’s equivalent. Each car took 6 to 8 weeks to build and cost between £285 and £550. The Friary proved to be too small for the quantity of orders, so in 1907 the company moved to a new factory at Churchfields on Bemerton Road, now occupied by Sydenhams Timber and Builders Merchants. By 1907 thirteen cars had been registered in Wiltshire. This year saw the arrival of a ‘Landaulette’ closed body, up until this point all the bodies were open. Bodies were mostly made off-site by coachbuilders and assembled in the factory.
1909 saw the introduction of small commercial vehicles, by now the company was well established with a good reputation for quality and reliability. In 1911 Percy Dean left for British Columbia in Western Canada, which dealt a major blow to the company as he was a leading force. Mr Clifford Radcliffe who had been with the company since 1907 became Director to replace Percy Dean. 1912 saw record sales figures with 31 cars registered in Wiltshire alone. The company now employed over 150 men. 1912 saw the introduction of one of the first privately-run motor bus services in the country by Messrs J. Hall and Son of Orcheston trading as Shrewton Motor Services. The service connected the surrounding villages and Salisbury, each bus could carry 20 passengers and their luggage. Two years later the Wilts and Dorset Motor Services was founded with five of their six buses using Scout chassis.
On Saturday 3 January 1920 the Sailsbury Journal reported on how the city had spent Christmas. "A return to the customs of pre-war days was observable over the Christmas holidays", the "streets were almost deserted on Christmas Day, which was, for the most part, devoted to family reunions".
The Infirmary: All the wards were very prettily decorated and in a more attractive manner than had been possible during the last few years. The Children’s Ward and Queensbury Ward were decorated to represent winter, a snowman in each of the wards, with holly and snow, being an outstanding feature. Large butterflies were included in the adornment of Atwood and Accident Wards, whilst Radnor Ward was prettily decorated with purple and white clematis.
The Workhouse: A thoroughly enjoyable time was spent by the inmates of Salisbury Union Workhouse during the Christmas thanks to many donors of gifts and the care of the Master and Matron (Mr. and Mrs. W.R. Clarke) and their assistants.
Fisherton House Asylum: On Christmas Day the patients and staff were entertained on a pre-war basis, the far consisting of roast beef, plum pudding, mince pies, fruit &c. During the day all the wards were visited by Sir Cecil Chubb (proprietor), the medieval superintendent and administrative staff, and games and dancing were provided.
Isolation Hospital: …the patients in the Salisbury and District Isolation Hospital, consisting principally of children, spent a bright and happy Christmas. They were provided with turkey and plum pudding for dinner on Christmas Day, had games during the afternoon, and after a tea party carols were sung. On the evening of Boxing-day an entertainment was given in the Scarlet Ward, including a play, “Cinderella”, which was much enjoyed, and afterwards “Father Christmas” distributed gifts from the Christmas-tree.
The Portable Antiquities Scheme (PAS) is a national programme run by the British Museum in partnership with local bodies; in Wiltshire these are Salisbury Museum, Wiltshire Museum, Wiltshire Council and Swindon Museum and Art Gallery. The primary aims of the scheme are to provide a framework by which members of the public can identify and record finds of potential archaeological significance, as well as to encourage awareness of archaeological issues and best archaeological practice. Whilst the scheme is available to everyone, from field walkers to builders, by the nature of their hobby Metal Detectorists find the majority of the archaeological artefacts we record onto our database; and it is our job to help those engaged in the hobby record as much archaeological information as they can, while also minimising disturbance of in situ archaeological remains.
Metal detecting as a hobby is actually highly comparable to fishing and, anecdotally, I have noticed there does seem to be a great deal of overlap between the two groups. Both hobbies are relatively solitary affairs which can require great deals of patience – they both also exploit a resource in our environment, but this is where the similarities begin to end. Whereas fishing is carefully licenced and managed in order to ensure that the exploitation of our river’s fish is sustainable, there is no such monitoring of the archaeological record.
Crucially, and unlike fish, the archaeological record cannot repopulate itself, once a deposit is disturbed and/or artefact removed, the context is lost for good. This is why it is imperative that detectorists behave responsibly as they exploit this resource which, ultimately, belongs to everyone.
Legally speaking, detectorists in England and Wales are only required to report objects which meet the criteria of the Treasure Act 1996, this is a very specifically worded and narrow set of criteria which frequently miss nationally important finds; a recent example has obviously been the Gloucestershire Dog hoard, but more locally this narrow definition has missed a large hoard of Roman pewter, containing a rare and well preserved tank, thankfully reported by the finder. There is more to detecting responsibly than simply making me aware of unusual finds however, and the perception that I would only be interested in nicer finds is something I often run up against.