Working from home in 2020 might involve a networked computer and video conferencing but if you are working from your kitchen table, you have more in common with a 19th century home worker than you might expect.
Picture anywhere between half a dozen to a dozen children gathered on a flagged or earth kitchen floor in the kitchen of a roadside cottage, receiving rudimentary lessons perhaps in reading or sewing from an elderly woman, and you have what was a fairly typical example of a 19th century dame school.
There was no national system of education before the 19th century, and the opportunities for a formal education were restricted mainly to town grammar schools, charity schools and dame schools. In the 19th century two societies were responsible for much elementary education; The British and Foreign Schools Society (named such in 1814) was founded by two Quakers in 1808, and the National Society for the Education of the Poor in the Principles of the Established Church throughout England and Wales for Anglicans was formed in 1811 from the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge. The schools built by these societies are commonly referred to as British Schools and National Schools but for areas without access to these schools, a dame school would have been one of the few options. It was not until 1870 the Education Act paved the way for state run schools by providing for the election of school boards, with the power to build and manage schools where provision by the two voluntary societies was inadequate. And in 1902 the responsibility for providing elementary, secondary and technical education passed to 330 Local Education Authorities (LEAs). You can find out more about education in Wiltshire through the centuries and the kinds of records that you can find in another of our blogs “Schools Out for Summer!”
There are few records for dame schools, although 19th century parliamentary report provide some information. Nevertheless, we know they were a feature of education for several centuries: in the mid-17th century Charles Hoole wrote in A New Discovery of the Old Art of Teaching Schoole that education was too important to be be ‘left as a work for poor women, or others, whose necessities compel them to undertake it, as a mere shelter from beggary’.
A valuable picture of education in the mid-19th century is also given by the return prepared by the Revd. W. Warburton, H.M.I., to a House of Commons order in 1859. The resulting Account of Schools for Children of the Labouring Classes in Wilts (available at the History Centre under shelfmark AAA.372) gives details of attendance, staffing, buildings, equipment, and curriculum every school open to inspection, usually with comments on teachers, pupils, and management. There were 140 day schools liable to inspection and 428 others (including dame schools). The number of dame schools is not precise but Warburton estimates the number of children attending dame schools as about 1,900 (approximately 6% of the total number of scholars in Wiltshire at the time). It is likely there were between 100-200 dame schools in Wiltshire in the mid-19th century.
The second half of the century saw an overall decline in dame schools following the introduction of government grants for the building and improvement of schools. For example, prior to 1858 a dame school with 20 to 30 children existed in Collingbourne Ducis but this closed following the construction of the new parochial school in 1859. However, some dame schools survived and even continued to be established: Warburton remarked that ‘They are not uncommonly set up, especially by the dissenting bodies, as a tentative step, in order to discover whether a more regularly constituted school would be likely to draw in a given place’. As well as to test local demand for education, they were set up due to the need of the mistress to earn an income: Warburton notes ‘It is difficult to exaggerate the shifting, changeable character of private dames’ schools, owing their origin as they do, in many cases, not to the educational necessities of the district, but to the domestic necessities of the teacher.’
The following examples of communities where dame schools existed can be found on our Community History pages (which are well worth checking out!)
16 August 2019 marks the 200th anniversary of the 1819 Peterloo Massacre where 60,000 people demonstrated in St Peter’s Field, Manchester demanding parliamentary reform. Eighteen people were killed and hundreds injured when the Manchester and Salford Yeomanry and the 15th Hussars were sent in to disperse the crowd and arrest the leaders.
Politician, Henry ‘Orator’ Hunt, a principal speaker at the St Peter’s Field meeting, was born at Widdington Farm in Upavon, Wiltshire on 6 Nov 1773.
Hunt was educated at Tilshead on Salisbury Plain by a Mr Cooper and later in Hampshire. In his memoirs Hunt recounts he was ‘sent to boarding school at Tilshead in Wiltshire, at five and a half years of age… This school, which was situated in a healthy village upon Salisbury Plain, consisted of a master and an usher, who had the care and instruction of sixty-three boys. The scholars were better fed than taught’.
Although his father hoped he would go into Holy Orders, he was inclined towards farming, and began work on the farm aged 16. His experience of the local poverty and rural administration is what has been posited as the driver towards his radical views.
He married a Miss Halcomb, daughter of the innkeeper of the Bear Inn, Devizes and had two sons and a daughter, but the couple separated in 1802, and he eloped with a friend’s wife, Mrs Vince.
He farmed at various locations in Wiltshire, Sussex and Shropshire, and became involved in politics and became a noted public speaker. His rousing speeches at the mass meetings held at Spa Fields, London gained him his ‘Orator’ nickname.
He was invited by the Patriotic Union Society to be one of the key speakers at the scheduled meeting in Manchester on 16 August 1819.
Among the numerous national anniversaries we are commemorating in 2015 (which includes those for World War 1, World War 2 and, of course, Magna Carta) is one that perhaps will get less attention, which is the 50th anniversary of the death of Winston Churchill who died on the 24th January 1965. The Wiltshire and Swindon History Centre has received a few enquiries on possible Churchill connections with Wiltshire and so I thought I would dig a little deeper by doing what all good Archives & Local Studies Managers do … ask my colleagues if they knew of any! So here is what they have come up with so far.
Clearly as a man with connections Churchill no doubt visited numerous notable friends and families in the county that we do not yet know of, perhaps including those whose archives we hold. However, the earliest reference appears to be in 1914 with a more unexpected connection. Churchill was a keen early aviator and despite his family’s fears of the danger of airplanes at that time, he was one of small group of people to learn to fly these machines and certainly the first politician. There is an image held by the Science Museum of Winston Churchill preparing to fly at Upavon, home to the Army Flying Corps. You can find out more about his love of flying and view the image at:
During and following the First World War Churchill was a prominent politician. He had become an MP in 1900 and having first attached himself to the Conservative Party he crossed the floor of Parliament to join the Liberal Party in 1904. He served at various times as Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies, President of the Board of Trade and First Lord of the Admiralty. In 1915 he resigned from government to serve on the Western Front, but returned to government in 1917 as Minister of Munitions, then Secretary of State for War in 1919 and Secretary of State for the Colonies in 1921 in the coalition government.
We have several letters within our archives at the History Centre to and from Churchill that can be found in the political papers of Viscount Long of Wraxall, who was an MP and, like Churchill, held several prominent positions during a long political career.