Articles tagged with: West Lavington

Wiltshire's Enemy Aliens (Part Three): 'Roulette'

on Monday, 06 February 2017. Posted in Archives, Wiltshire People

As the Second World War drew on numerous other nations entered the conflict, both with and against Britain: Britain formally declared war on Finland, Hungary and Romania on 7 December 1941, the same day as Japan entered the war with the attack on Pearl Harbour; more countries joined the war as time went by. These new entries into the conflict made enemy aliens out of thousands of foreign nationals living in Britain, enemy aliens whom the government believed needed to be controlled. The way these people were dealt with by the government can tell us much about how the final stages of the internment process unfolded in Britain, particularly Wiltshire, and about everyday life for foreigners during the war.

In Wiltshire after the summer of 1940 the aliens who most concerned the police were Romanians. On 8 November 1940 the Home Office issued a letter to all British police forces outlining that in the event of war with Romania, any Romanians in Britain would automatically become enemy aliens, at which point the government planned intern those who were male and between the ages of 16 and 65. We don’t know exactly how many Romanians were living in Wiltshire at this time, but it wasn’t many. According to a census undertaken by the police in March 1942, out of a total of 624 aliens living in Wiltshire there were only six Romanians, two men and four women.

1 List of Male Romanians in Wiltshire, 8 November 1940 (ref F5/530/7)

 On 12 November the police in Wiltshire drew up a list of names of male Romanians in the county who were to be interned under these orders. They were a 31-year old living in Swindon, and a 16-year old living in West Lavington. In a note at the end of the report the police recorded that “both are physically fit”, meaning that they were not exempt from internment due to poor health. The Home Office had asked the police to keep this list continually updated, and on 13 February 1941 the older man’s name was removed and replaced by another 18-year old living in Hullavington, also described as ‘physically fit’.

2 List of Male Romanians living in Wiltshire, 13 February 1941 (ref F5/530/7)

These lists present us with something of a puzzle: the Arandora Star was sunk in July 1940, resulting in a public outcry against mass internment and supposedly the government’s abandonment of the policy. Yet here we have evidence that police in Wiltshire, on the orders of the Home Office, were actively maintaining a list of people eligible for mass internment as late as February 1941. The reality is that the government’s change of internment policy was only a very gradual process, one that was set in motion by the sinking of the Arandora Star but not one that was completed quickly.

Wiltshire Women's Institutes

on Thursday, 24 March 2016. Posted in Archives, Wiltshire People

"We leave the theoretical Utopias to others and concentrate on the down-to-earth ways in which ordinary lives can be improved" Pat Jacob, National Chairman in ‘Jam and Jerusalem’ by Simon Goodenough, 1977.

The Women’s Institute is probably the largest and most widely known women’s organisation. Over the years it has not only survived, but thrived. 

The first WI was formed in 1897 at Stoney Creek, Ontario, Canada by Mrs Adelaide Hoodless. A suggestion that women could form their own group was put forward at a Young Farmer’s Institute and the following week over 100 women attended. Adelaide Hoodless had suffered the loss of a baby from contaminated milk, and, recognising this, she was determined to prevent others suffering similar losses through a lack of education. She went on to be involved with founding Domestic Science courses for girls, as well as holding positions of president of the national YWCA and treasurer of the National Council of Women of Canada.

It wasn’t until 1915 that the WI came to Britain when the first group was formed at Llanfair in Wales by Mrs Watt. Mrs Watt had been a member of the Canadian WI, one of only four women on a committee to advise the Department of Agriculture in British Columbia and promoted the Women’s Institute movement following its official recognition in 1911. Upon the death of her husband in 1913 she moved to Britain and set about encouraging the movement here.

The Wiltshire federation came into being in 1919 following the establishment of six WI’s. Founded in September 1916, Redlynch and District WI is the oldest in Wiltshire and probably the second oldest in the country. There are currently over 4000 members in 125 WIs across the county and here at the History Centre we hold an array of archive material from many of them.

One of the most interesting aspects of many of the WI collections are the scrap books, which showcase local life, are often a work of art in their own right. Bradenstoke WI scrapbook highlights some of their achievements as well as hiding unexpected gems such as the beautiful examples of a 19th century lace collar and lace neck tie below.

 

WI scrapbook of the history of Bradenstoke with Clack, ref 2626/1

Example of 19th century lace work ref 2626/1
Example of 19th century lace neck tie, ref 2626/1

From our own correspondent – what Wiltshire people were reading in the news … 200 years ago.

on Saturday, 05 March 2016. Posted in Archives, Wiltshire People

 

Studio portrait of the Hon, B.P. Bouverie, vicar of Pewsey, seated and reading a magazine, late 19th or early 20th century (P551)

With foreign affairs much in the news lately, readers might be interested in taking the long view and discover what Wiltshire people were reading about the world this week 200 years ago. If you lived in Wiltshire in March 1816, this was a time where semaphore was the nearest thing to Twitter and mail travelled by boat and stage coach, and took a bit longer to end up in the junk folder. Although news travelled slow, it was not hard as you might think to follow international news. Your provincial newspaper, such as the Salisbury Journal (The Salisbury and Wiltshire Journal and General Advertiser for Wilts, Hants, Dorset and Somerset), mainly contained adverts, national (parliament) and international news, more adverts, and just a little bit of local news from surrounding counties. The main function of the newspaper was to bring you foreign and national news, rather than fill the papers with local stories. Given the relatively small population size, you probably knew most what has going on in your local area and all the local gossip, so you didn’t need to read about it. Your newspaper would have been weekly and unlikely to extend beyond four pages. Of course, there were two other essential conditions for your enjoyment, money – the newspaper cost seven pence (the average wage for a labourer was about four shillings and sixpence a week), and you had to be able to read. So unless you were in the minority of the educated and relatively wealthy, well you will just have to wait until someone passes the news on to you and who knows how accurate it will be by the time you hear it – just the sort of misinformation to cause a riot.

Unrest seemed to be the order of the day around the world in 1816. The Salisbury Journal reported on a “serious misunderstanding” between Spain and the United States, the Spanish demanding all of the American citizens who were concerned in the revolution in “South America.” They also insisted on some cessation of territory from the US to Spain. This is most likely a reference to the war of independence in Mexico (New Spain) which lasted until 1821. The Journal also reported that the leader of the “Mexican insurgents,” a man named Morellos, had been arrested. Happily there were no presidential primaries to report on in the US, but it was business as usual, strengthening the navy, creating a national bank and making peace treaties with Native American tribes on the North-West Frontier. Oh, and there was an increase in taxes to pay for previous wars. A bit further away the French were falling out with the Portuguese, who had taken the opportunity to seize Cayenne and French Guiana during insurrection along that part of the Atlantic coast of South America.

In North America the British government were clearly not worried about the sustainability of fish and other sea life, encouraging an increase in the fishery of cod and whales on the banks of Newfoundland. But it was not so good if you wanted to start a new life there, as the government also announced that it was no longer funding emigration passages to America.

This was all very interesting, but of course the news you most wanted to read about was in Europe and in particular, the French...

School’s Out for Summer!

on Friday, 13 June 2014. Posted in Archives, Schools

Education records in Wiltshire and Swindon Archives

At this time of year, I can’t help but think of all the children doing exams at school and college, and who are now awaiting results. I thought it might be timely to write about the range of school records held in the Wiltshire and Swindon Archives that shed light on how our ancestors coped with the demands of education. I was also amused to read on an external website that Elvis Presley managed only to get a ‘C’ for music in his exams – it just goes to show that formal education is not the be all and end all!

What I’ll do is run through the main types of educational establishments which have existed in Wiltshire down the centuries, and discuss what records may be found for them, and how they may be used. A quick caveat before I begin - survival of education records is patchy, unfortunately. Also, it is worth remembering they may still be kept by the establishment itself rather than a county record office.

Fire!

on Tuesday, 25 March 2014. Posted in Events, Wiltshire Places

I feel I can safely say that almost no town, village or hamlet in the county has been untouched by fire at some point during its history. It must have been an ever-present fear for every community – all that was needed was one little spark. Barns and hayricks were often to be found in the proximity of dwellings, and fire could quickly spread…

All houses were constructed of flammable materials, with thatch roofs being particularly vulnerable. When added to this the presence of naked flames, it presented a high degree of risk to person, property and livelihood.

Ramsbury, June 1648
The Ramsbury Fire of June 14th, 1648 destroyed the houses and belongings of 130 people. The county committee authorized collections throughout Wiltshire, but eleven weeks after the fire those affected had still not received much aid (the Civil War and many other needy appeals were occurring at the same time).  Shockingly, the Ramsbury inhabitants had also found that a forged ‘brief’ was being used to raise money for the cause which they would never receive. They had to act quickly, placing a notice of the circumstances in the London newsbooks of the day, telling of the validity of the fire and the illegality of the first brief. In fact none of the newsbooks had mentioned the fire at the time as they were too concerned with war movements.

Churches often included ‘briefs’ in their sermons, asking for donations for help with the church roof, but also for events such as this. After initial local assistance, further assistance could be raised on a regional or even national scale by raising a charitable brief, ‘a licence to collect relief which was issued by the Lord Chancellor’.

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